Education About Asia: Online Archives

The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904–1924

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By Henry (Yoshitaka) Kiyama
Translated, with introduction and notes,
by Frederik L. Schodt
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA: STONE BRIDGE PRESS, 1999
152 PAGES, NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Japanese immigration to the United States peaked after the turn of the century, as annexation of Hawaii brought a large Japanese community within American borders. Anti-Asian agitation in the West led to the 1907 Gentleman’s Agreement restricting Japanese immigration to family reunification, and that was cut to a few hundred people per year in 1924. Nonetheless, many Japanese immigrants endured this discrimination, and their descendants became a permanent part of the American social fabric.