Education About Asia: Online Archives

Educating Students about Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

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Exposing students to APEC offers them opportunities to learn about a significant and innovative cooperative association of twenty-one member economies that collectively account for 45 percent of global population, land mass, economic product, and external trade. Its administrative structure is so innovative that it permits the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong (as a Special Administrative Region of the PRC), and Taiwan (as Chinese Taipei) to cooperate as APEC member economies. The following essay traces APEC’s emergence, history, administrative structure, programmatic activities, and plans of action that focus exclusively on economic and technical matters and not on political, strategic, or military affairs. The essay also explains the importance of APEC’s annual summits and recommends references that provide students and teachers with a resource base sufficient to gain an understanding of the unique form of economic cooperation that APEC provides.


1. In their 1994 Bogor declaration, APEC leaders agreed to the common goals of free and open trade and investment by 2010 for industrialized economies and 2020 for developing economies. They agreed to pursue these targets, known as the Bogor goals, by reducing barriers to trade and investment to promote the free flow of goods, services, and capital among APEC economies. Last modified November 2010, trade/APEC-2010-Bogor-Goals.html.

Selected Referral Resources

Aggarwal, V.K., and S. Urata. Bilateral Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific: Origins, Evolution and Implications (New York and London: Routledge, 2006).

APEC. APEC at a Glance: Advancing Free Trade for Asia-Pacific Prosperity (Singapore: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat, 2010).

APEC. APEC: Outcomes and Outlooks 2010-2011. Advancing Free Trade for Asia-Pacific Prosperity (Singapore: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat, 2011).

Barro, Robert J., and Jong-Wha Lee. Costs and Benefits of Economic Integration (London and Manila: Oxford University Press and Asian Development Bank, 2011).

Choi, Seok-young. Regionalism and Open Regionalism in the APEC Region (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004).

Estevadeordal, Antoni, Matthew Shearer, and Kati Suominen. Regional Integration in the Americas: State of Play, Lessons and Ways Forward (Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute, 2011).

Ho, Lok Sang, and John Wong. APEC and the Rise of China (Singapore: World Scientific Publishers, 2011).

Hugo, Graham, and Soogil Young. Labour Mobility in the Asian-Pacific Region: Dynamics, Issues and a New APEC (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008).

Kesavapany, K., and Hank Lim. APEC at 20: Recall, Reflect, Remake (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009).

Martin, Michael. The 2009 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings and US Trade Policies (Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2010).

Miranti, Riyana, and Dennis Wei-Yen Haw. APEC in the 21st Century (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2004).

Morrison, Charles E., and Eduardo Pedrosa. An APEC Trade Agenda (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007).

Yamazawa, Ippei. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation: New Agenda in its Third Decade (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011).

APEC-Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Mission Statement,

APEC Bulletin,

APEC News Releases, aspx.

APEC Business Advisory Council, “Deepening Regional Economic Integration-Charting the Road Ahead,” last modified November 9, 2010,

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