Education About Asia: Online Archives

Bibliography for Teaching Violence in Chinese History at a Southern Military College

Download PDF

Editor’s Note: Please see Keith Knapp, “Teaching Violence in Chinese History at a Southern Military College,”from the Fall 2020 issue of Education about Asia.


Andrade, Tonio. Lost Colony: The Untold Story of China’s First Great Victory over the West. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

— . The Gunpowder Age: China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Anthony, Robert J. Like Froth Floating on the Sea: The World of Pirates and Seafarers in Late Imperial South China. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, 2003.

— . Unruly People: Crime, Community, and State in Late Imperial South China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016.

— , “Spectacles of Violence in China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 612-633.

Barrett, T. H. “Religion and Violence in China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 349-367.

Billingsley, Phil. Bandits in Republican China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988.

Boretz, Avron. Gods, Ghosts and Gangsters: Ritual Violence, Martial Arts and Masculinity on the Margins of Chinese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2010.

Brook, Timothy. Quelling the People: The Military Suppression of the Beijing Democracy Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Buoye, Thomas. “Homicide and Punishment in Eighteenth-Century China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 350-369.

Campbell, Roderick. “Transformations of Violence: On Humanity and Inhumanity in Early China,” in his Violence and Civilization: Studies of Social Violence in History and Prehistory. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2014, 94-108.

— . Violence, Kinship, and the Early Chinese State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Chittick, Andrew. Patronage and Community in Medieval China: The Xiangyang Garrison, 400- 600 CE. Albany: SUNY Press, 2010. 

— , “The Transformation of Naval Warfare in Early Medieval China: The Role of Light Fast Boats.” Journal of Asian History 44.2 (2010): 128-150.

— , “Competitive Spectacle during China’s Northern and Southern Dynasties: With Particular Emphasis on Dragon Boat Racing.” Asia Major (Third Series) 23, no. 1 (2010): 65-85.

— , “The Song Navy and the Invention of Dragon Boat Racing.” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 41 (2011): 1-28. Crossley, Pamela Kyle. Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

— . Hammer and Anvil: Nomad Rulers at the Forge of the Modern World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefied, 2019.

Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Helen F. Siu, and Donald S. Sutton, eds. Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

de Crespigny, Rafe. Northern Frontier: The Politics and Strategy of the Later Han Empire. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, 1984.

—, “The Military Culture of Later Han.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 90-111.

— . Imperial Warlord: A Biography of Cao Cao, 155-220 AD. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

Di Cosmo, Nicola, tr. A Diary of a Manchu Soldier in seventeenth-century China. Richmond: Curzon, 2001.

— ed., Warfare in Inner Asian History, 500-1800. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

— , “Did Guns Matter? Firearms and the Qing Formation,” in The Qing Formation in World Historical Time, ed. Lynn A. Struve. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2004, 121-166.

— . Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

— , ed. Military Culture in Imperial China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

— , “Violence in Inner Asian History.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 19-37.

Dien, Albert E., “The Stirrup and its Effect on Chinese Military History,” Ars Orientalis 16 (1986), 33-56.

— , “A study of early Chinese armor,” Artibus Asiae 43 (1981/82): 5-66.

Dreyer, Edward. Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405-1433. New York: Pearson, 2006.

— . “Zhao Chongguo: A Professional Soldier of China’s Former Han Dynasty,” Journal of Military History 72 (2008): 665-725.

— . “Military Aspects of the War of Eight Princes, 300-307.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 112-142.

— . China at War, 1901-1949. Routledge, 2014. 

DuBois, Thomas David, “Religion and Violence in East Asia.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 493-512.

— , “Heresy and Banditry: Religious Violence in China since 1850.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 4: 1800 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 41-67.

Fraser, Chris, “The Mozi and Just War Theory in Pre-Han Thought,” Journal of Chinese Military History 5, no. 2 (2016): 135-175.

Graff, David A. “The Battle of Huo-i,” Asia Major (3rd Series) 5.1 (1992): 33-54.

— , “Meritorious Cannibal: Chang Hsun’s Defense of Sui-yang and the Exaltation of Loyalty in an Age of Rebellion,” Asia Major (3rd Series) 8.1 (1995): 1-16.

— , “The Sword and the Brush: Military Specialization and Career Patterns in Tang China, 618- 907,” War and Society 18 (2000): 9-21.

— , “Dou Jiande’s Dilemma: Logistics, Strategy, and State Formation in Seventh Century China.” In Warfare in Chinese History, ed. Hans van de Ven. Leiden: Brill, 2000, 77-105.

— , “Strategy and Contingency in the Tang Defeat of the Eastern Turks, 629-630.” In Warfare in Inner Asian History, 500-1800, ed. Nicola di Cosmo. Leiden: Brill, 2001, 31-71.

— , “State Making and State Breaking,” A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 39-56.

— . Medieval Chinese Warfare 300-900. Warfare and History Series. London: Routledge, 2002.

— . “Provincial Autonomy and Frontier Defense in Late Tang: The Case of the Lulong Army.” In Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period, ed. Don J. Wyatt. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, 43-58.

— . “Brain over Brawn: Shared Beliefs and Presumptions in Chinese and Western Strategemata,” Extrême-orient, Extrême-occident 38 (2014): 47-64.

— . The Eurasian Way of War: Military Practice in Seventh-Century China and Byzantium. London: Routledge, 2016.

— , “Command, Control and Castration: Eunuch Supervisors in the Armies of the Tang Dynasty.” In Chinese and Indian Warfare: From the Classical Age to 1870, eds. Kaushik Roy, & Peter Lorge. London: Routledge, 2017, 203-213.

— , “The Art of War.” In The Cambridge History of China, Volume 2: The Six Dynasties, 220-589, eds. Albert E. Dien and Keith N. Knapp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, 275-295.

Graff, David A. and Robin Higham, eds. A Military History of China. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.

Hang Xing. Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Haw, Stephen, “Cathayan Arrows and Meteors: The Origins of Chinese Rocketry,” Journal of Chinese Military History 2, no. 1 (2013): 28-42. 

Herman, John E. “The Mongol Conquest of Dali: The Failed Second Front.” In Warfare in Inner Asian History, 500-1800, ed. Nicola di Cosmo. Leiden: Brill, 2001, 295-334.

Hinsch, Brett. “Representations of Violence in Imperial China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 535-555.

Huang K’uan-chung, “Mountain Fortress Defense: The Experience of the Southern Song and Korea in Resisting the Mongol Invasions.” In Warfare in Chinese History, ed. Hans van de Ven. Leiden: Brill, 2000, 222-251.

Jagchid, Sechin and Van Jay Symons. Peace, War, and Trade along the Great Wall: Nomadic Chinese Interaction through Two Millennia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Johnston, Alastair. Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Kao Yu-Kung, “A Study of the Fang La Rebellion.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 24 (1962- 63): 17-63.

Katz, Paul. Divine Justice: Religion and the Development of Chinese Legal Culture. London: Routledge, 2008.

Kierman, Frank A. Jr. and John K. Fairbank, eds. Chinese Ways of Warfare. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Kuhn, Philip. Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China: Militarization and Social Structure, 1796-1864. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Lamley, Harry J. “Lineage Feuding in Southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong under Qing Rule.” In Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture, eds. Jonathan N. Lipman and Stevan Harrell. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990, 27-64.

Lane, Kris and Robert Anthony, “Piracy in Asia and the West.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 449-471.

Lary, Diana. Warlord Soldiers: Chinese Common Soldiers 1911-1937. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

— . The Chinese People at War: Human Suffering and Social Transformation, 1937-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Lau, Nap-yin, “Waging War for Peace? The Peace Accord between the Song and the Liao in AD 1005.” In Warfare in Chinese History, ed. Hans van de Ven. Leiden: Brill, 2000, 180-221.

Lewis, Mark Edward, “The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service.” In Warfare in Chinese History, ed. Hans van de Ven. Leiden: Brill, 2000, 33-76.

Lipman, Jonathan N. and Stevan Harrell, eds. Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Liu, James J. Y. The Chinese Knight-Errant. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. 

Lo Jung-pang, Bruce A. Elleman, ed. China as a Sea Power 1127-1368: A Preliminary Survey of the Maritime Expansion and Naval Exploits of the Chinese People during the Southern Song and Yuan Periods. Singapore: NUS Press, 2012.

Lo Ping-cheung and Sumner B. Twiss, eds. Chinese Just War Ethics: Origin, development, and dissent. London: Routledge, 2015.

Lo, Winston W. “The Self-image of the Chinese Military in Historical Perspective,” Journal of Asian History 31.1 (1997): 1-24.

Loewe, Michael. Records of Han Administration. 2v., Cambridge University Press, 1967.

—, “The Western Han Army: Organization, Leadership, and Operation.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 65-89.

Lorge, Peter. “The Entrance and Exit of the Song Founders,” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies 29 (1999): 43-62. War and Society 18 (2000): 9-21.

— , “Water Forces and Naval Operations,” A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 81-96.

— . War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China 900-1795. London: Routledge, 2005.

— , ed. Warfare in China to 1600. London: Routledge, 2005.

— . The Asian Military Revolution: From Gunpowder to the Bomb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

— . Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

— , ed. Debating War in Chinese History. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

— , “The Rise of the Martial: Rebalancing Wen and Wu in Song Dynasty Culture.” In Civil Military Relations in Chinese History: From Ancient China to the Communist Takeover, ed. Kai Filipiak. London: Routledge, 2015, 134-143.

— . The Reunification of China: Peace through War under the Song Dynasty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

—, “State, Society and Trained Violence in China, 618-1500.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 228-247.

Mackinnon, Stephen R. Wuhan 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Mackinnon, Stephen R., Diana Lary, and Ezra F. Vogel, eds. China at War: Regions of China, 1937-45. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Mackinnon, Stephen R. & Diana Lary. Scars of War: The Impact of Warfare on Modern China. UBC Press, 2001.

Madsen, Richard, “The Politics of Revenge in Rural China during the Cultural Revolution.” In Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture. eds. Jonathan N. Lipman and Stevan Harrell, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990, 175-202.

May, Timothy. The Mongolian Art of War. Yardley, PA: Westholme, 2007.

McCord, Edward. The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism. University of California Press, 1993.

— . Military Force and Elite Power in the Formation of Modern China. London: Routledge, 2014.

McNeal, Robert. Conquer and Govern: Early Chinese Military Texts in the Yi Zhou Shu. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2012.

Meyer-Fong, Tobie. What Remains: Coming to Terms with Civil War in 19th Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.

Miyake, Kiyoshi. “The Military History of the Qin and the Composition of Its Expeditionary Forces,” Bamboo and Silk 1, no. 1 (2018): 121-151.

Mostern, Ruth. “From Battlefields to Counties: War, Border, and State Power in Southern Song Huainan.” In Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period, 227-252, ed. Don J. Wyatt. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

Mitter, Rana. The Forgotton Ally: China in World War II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

Meulenbeld, Mark R. E. Demonic Warfare: Daoism, Territorial Networks, and the History of a Ming Novel. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2015.

Meyer, Andrew Seth, tr. The Dao of the Military: Liu An’s Art of War. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Murray, Dian H. Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987.

— . The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.

Needham, Joseph. Science and Civlization in China, Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 7, Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

— and Robin Yates. Needham, Joseph. Science and Civlization in China, Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 5, Military Technology: Missiles and Sieges. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Oldberding, Garrett, “Dynamic Divisions: The Tactics of Weiqi and Strategic Space in Imperial China,” Journal of Chinese Military History 3, no. 2 (2014): 91-139.

Ou, Anthony. Just War and the Confucian Classics: An Analysis of the Gongyangzhuan. VDM Verlag, 2010.

Ownby, David. Brotherhood and Secret Societies in Early and Mid-Qing China: The Formation of a Tradition. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Peattie, Mark. Battle for China: Essay on Military History of Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.

Perdue, Peter C. China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Pines, Yuri, “A ‘Total War’? Rethinking Military Ideology in the Book of Lord Shang,” Journal of Chinese Military History 5, no. 2 (2016): 97-134.

— , tr. The Book of Lord Shang: Apologetics of State Power in Early China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2019.

Pow, Stephen & Jingjing Liao, “Subutai: Sorting Fact from Fiction Surrounding the Mongol Empire’s Greatest General (With Translations of Subutai’s Two Biographies in the Yuan shi),” Journal of Chinese Military History 7, no. 1 (2018): 37-76.

Psarras, Sophia-Karin, “Han and Xiongnu: A Reexamination of Cultural and Political Relations,” Monumenta Serica 51 (2003): 55-236 and 52 (2004): 37-93.

Rand, Christopher C. “Li Ch’üan and Chinese Military Thought,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 39 (1979): 107-137.

— , “Chinese Military Thought and Philosophical Taoism”, Monumenta Serica 34 (1979-1980): 171-218.

— . Military Thought in Early China. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2017.

Robinson, David. “Politics, Force, and Ethnicity in Ming China,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 59, no. 1 (1999): 79-123.

— , “Banditry and the Subversion of State Authority in China: The Capital Region during the Middle Ming Period (1450-1525),” Journal of Social History 33, no. 3 (2000): 527-563.

— . Bandits, Eunuchs and the Son of Heaven. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

— . Martial Spectacles of the Ming Court. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013.

— . “Chinese Border Garrisons in an International Context: Liaodong under the early Ming Dynasty.” In Chinese and Indian Warfare: From the Classical Age to 1870, eds. Kaushik Roy, & Peter Lorge. London: Routledge, 2017, 57-73.

Rowe, William, T. Crimson Rain: Seven Centuries of Violence in a Chinese County. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Roy, Kaushik & Peter Lorge, eds. Chinese and Indian Warfare: From the Classical Age to 1870. London: Routledge, 2017.

Ryden, Edmund. Philosophy of Peace in Han China: A Study of the Huainanzi Ch. 15 On Military Strategy. Taipei: Taipei Ricci Institute, 1998.

Sanft, Charles, “Bow Control in Han China,” Journal of Asian History 42.2 (2008): 143-164.

— , “Violence in Early Chinese History.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 1: The Prehistoric and Ancient Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 418- 438. Sawyer, Ralph D. The Seven Military Classics of Ancient China. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.

— , tr. Sun Tzu: Art of War. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1994.

— , tr. Military Methods of the Art of War: Sun Pin. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.

— , tr. One Hundred Unorthodox Strategies. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1998.

— , tr. Wang Chen, The Tao of Peace: Lessons from Ancient China on the Dynamics of Conflict. Boston: Shambhala, 1999. 

— . “Military Writings,” A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 97-114.

— . Fire and Water: The Art of Incendiary and Aquatic Warfare in China. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002.

— . The Tao of Spycraft: Intelligence Theory and Practice in Traditional China. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004.

— . The Tao of Deception: Unorthodox Warfare in Historic and Modern China. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

— . “Martial Prognostication.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 45-64.

— . Ancient Chinese Warfare. New York: Basic Books, 2011.

— . Conquest and Domination in Early China: Rise and Demise of the Western Chou. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2013.

— . Zhuge Liang: Strategy, Achievements, and Writings. Charleston, SC: CreateSpace, 2014.

— . Lever of Power: Military Deception in China and the West. 2017.

Selbitschka, Armin. “Early Chinese Diplomacy: Realpolitik versus the so-called Tributary System,” Asia Major Third Series, v. 28, part 1 (2015): 61-114.

— , “Tribute, Hostages, and Marriage Alliances: A Close Reading of the Diplomatic Strategies in the Northern Wei Period,” Early Medieval China 25 (2019): 64-84.

Sellmann, James D. “Asian Insights on Violence and Peace,” Asian Philosophy 19.2 (2009): 159- 171.

Shahar, Meir. The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2008.

Shaughnessy, Edward L. “Historical Perspectives on the Introduction of the Chariot into China,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 44 (1988): 189-237.

Shek, Richard, “Sectarian Eschatology and Violence.” In Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture. eds. Jonathan N. Lipman, and Stevan Harrell Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990, 87-114.

Skaff, Jonathan Karam. “Barbarians at the Gates? The Tang Frontier Military and the An Lushan Rebellion,” War and Society 18 (2000): 23-35.

— , “Tang Military Culture and Its Inner Asian Influences.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 165-191.

— . Sui-Tang China and Its Turko-Mongol Neighbors. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

— , “Early Medieval China’s Rulers, Retainers, and Harem.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 123-142.

Sommer, Matthew H. “Legal Understandings of Sexual and Domestic Violence in Late Imperial China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 219-235.

Stalnaker, Aaron, “Xunzi’s Moral Analysis of War and Some of Its Contemporary Implications,” Journal of Military Ethics 11, no. 2 (2012): 97-113.

Standen, Naomi, “Raiding and Frontier Society in the Five Dynasties.” In Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries, and Human Geographies in Chinese History, eds Nicola Di Cosmo and Don J. Wyatt. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 160-191.

— . Unbounded Loyalty: Frontier Crossings in Liao China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.

Stroble, James, “Justification of War in Ancient China,” Asian Philosophy 8.3 (Nov 1998): 165- 185.

Struve, Lynn A. Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers’ Jaws. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993.

Sun, Jimin, “Origins and Selection Criteria of Soldiers in Different Stages of the Tang Dynasty.” In Civil-Military Relations in Chinese History: From Ancient China to the Communist Takeover, ed. Kai Filipiak, 104-122. London: Routledge, 2015.

Swope, Kenneth M. “Civil-Military Coordination in the Bozhou Campaign of the Wanli Era,” War and Society 18 (2000): 49-70.

—, “Turning the Tide: The Strategic and Psychological Significance of the Liberation of Pyongyang in 1593,” War and Society 21 (2003): 1-22.

— . Warfare in China from 1600. London: Routledge, 2005. — . A Dragon’s Head and a Serpent’s Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War 1592- 1598. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009.

— . “As Close as Lips and Teeth: Debating the Ming Intervention in Korea,” in Debating War in Chinese History, ed. Peter Lorge. Leiden: Brill, 2013: 163-190.

— . The Military Collapse of China’s Ming Dynasty, 1618-1644. London: Routledge, 2013.

— , “Postcards from the Edge: Competing Strategies for the Defense of Liaodong in the late Ming,” In Civil-Military Relations in Chinese History: From Ancient China to the Communist Takeover, ed. Kai Filipiak. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, 144-171.

— , “Bringing in the Big Guns: On the use of Artillery in Ming-Manchu War,” In Chinese and Indian Warfare: From the Classical Age to 1870, eds. Kaushik Roy, & Peter Lorge. London: Routledge, 2017, 134-145.

— . On the Trail of the Yellow Tiger: War, Trauma, and Social Dislocation in Southwest China during the Ming-Qing Transition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2018.

— , “Chinese Ways of Warfare.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 3: AD 1500 – AD 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 119-137.

Szonyi, Michael. The Art of being Governed: Everyday Politics in Late Imperial China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017.

Tanner, Harold M. The Battle for Manchuria and the Fate of China: Siping, 1946. Indiana University Press, 2013.

— . Where Chiang Kai-shek Lost China: The Liao-Shen Campaign, 1948. Indiana University Press, 2015.

Tao, Jing-shen, “A Tyrant on the Yangtze: The Battle of Ts’ai-shih in 1161.” In Excursions in Chinese Culture: Festschrift in Honor of William R. Schultz. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002, 149-158.

Ter Haar, Barend J. The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History. Leiden: Brill, 1992.

— . The Ritual and Mythology of the Chinese Triads: Creating an Indentity. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

— , “Re-thinking Violence in Chinese Society.” In Meanings of Violence: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. Jon Abbink and Göran Aijmer. London: Routledge, 2000, 123-140.

— . Telling Stories: Witchcraft and Scapegoating in Chinese History. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

— , “Violence in Chinese Religious Culture.” In The Blackwell Companion to Religion and Violence, ed. Murphy, A. R. Malden/Oxford/Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011, 249-262.

— . Guan Yu: The Religious Afterlife of a Failed Hero. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

— . Religious Culture and Violence in Traditional China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Theobald, Ulrich, “Craftsmen and Specialist Troops in Early Modern Chinese Armies.” In CivilMilitary Relations in Chinese History: From Ancient China to the Communist Takeover, ed. Kai Filipiak. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, 191-209.

Thompson, Roger R. “Military Dimensions of the ‘Boxer Uprising’ in Shandong.” In Warfare in Chinese History, ed. Hans van de Ven. Leiden: Brill, 2000, 288-320.

Thurston, Anne. “Urban Violence during the Cultural Revolution: Who is to Blame?” In Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture, eds. Jonathan N. Lipman, and Stevan Harrell. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990, 149-174.

Tong, James W. Disorder under Heaven: Collective Violence in the Ming Dynasty. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

Tse, Wicky W. K. “Cutting the Enemy’s Line of Supply: The Rise of the Tactic and Its Use in Early Chinese Warfare,” Journal of Chinese Military History 6, no. 2 (2017): 131-156.

— . The Collapse of China’s later Han Dynasty, 25-220 CE. London: Routledge, 2018.

— , “Fabricating Legitimacy in a Peripheral Regime: Imperial Loyalism and Regionalism in the Northwest Borderlands under the Rule of the Former Liang.” Early Medieval China 24 (2018): 108-130.

— , “Warfare.” In the Routledge Handbook of Early Chinese History, ed. Paul R. Goldin. London: Routledge, 2018, 319-335.

— , “Violence and Warfare in Early Imperial China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 1: The Prehistoric and Ancient Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 277-296.

Turner, Karen, “War, Punishment and the Law of Nature in Early Chinese Concepts of the State.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 53: 2 (1993): 285-324.

van de Ven, Hans, China at War: Triumph and Tragedy in the Emergence of the New China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018.

—, ed. Warfare in Chinese History. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Van Els, Paul, “Righteous, Furious, or Arrogant? On Classifications of Warfare in Early China,” in Debating War in Chinese History, ed. Peter Lorge. Leiden: Brill, 2013, 13-40.

— , “How to End Wars with Words: Three Argumentative Strategies by Mozi and his Followers,” in The Mozi as an Evolving Text: Different Voices in Early Chinese Thought, eds. Carine Defoort and Nicholas Standaert. Leiden: Brill, 2013: 69-94.

Waldron, Arthur. The Great Wall of China: from history to myth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Waley-Cohen, Joanna, “Military Ritual and the Qing Empire.” In Warfare in Inner Asian History, 500-1800, ed. Nicola di Cosmo. Leiden: Brill, 2001, 405-444.

— . The Culture of War in China: Empire and the Military under the Qing Dynasty. London: I.B. Tauris, 2006.

— , “Militarization of Culture in Eighteenth-Century China.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 278-295.

Wallacker, Benjamin E. “Two Concepts in Early Chinese Military Thought,” Language 42 (1966): 295-299.

— , “Studies in medieval Chinese siegecraft: the siege of Yu-pi, A.D. 546,” Journal of Asian Studies 28.4 (August 1969): 789-802. — , “Studies in medieval Chinese siegecraft: the siege of Chien-k’ang, A.D. 548-549,” Journal of Asian History, 5.1 (1971): 35-54.

— , “Studies in medieval Chinese siegecraft: the siege of Ying-ch’uan, A.D. 548-549,” Journal of Asian Studies 30:3 (1971): 611-22. — , “Studies in medieval Chinese siegecraft: the Siege of Fengtian, A.D. 783,” Journal of Asian History 33 (1999): 185-193.

Wei, William. “Political Power Grows out of the Barrel of a Gun: Mao and the Red Army.” In A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 229-248.

Weller, Robert P. Resistance, Chaos and Control in China: Taiping Rebels, Taiwanese Ghosts and Tiananmen. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994.

Westad, Odd Arne. Decisive Encounters: The Chinese Civil War, 1946-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.

Williams, Crispin, “Early References to Collective Punishment in an excavated Chinese text: analysis and discussion of an imprecation from the Wenxian covenant text,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 74.3 (2011): 353-374.

Wright, David C. “The Northern Frontier.” In A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 57-80. 

— . From War to Diplomatic Parity in Eleventh-century China: Sung’s Foreign Relations with Kitan Liao. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

Wu Hsiao-yun. Chariots in Early China: Origins, Cultural Interaction, and Identity. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 2013.

Wu Junqing, “The Fang La Rebellion and Song Anti-Heresy Discourse,” Journal of Chinese Religions 45, no. 1 (2017): 19-37.

Wu Shu-hui, “Fighting for His Majesty (I): Accretion of the Greater Shang (ca. 1200-1045 B.C.),” Journal of Chinese Military History 1, no. 1 (2012): 24-60.

— . “Debates and Decision-making: The Battle of the Altai Mountains in AD 91.” In Debating War in Chinese History, ed. Peter Lorge. Leiden: Brill, 2013: 41-78.

Wyatt, Don J., ed. Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008.

— , “In Pursuit of the Great Peace: Wang Dan and the Early Song Evasion of the ‘Just War’ Doctrine.” ed. Battlefronts Real and Imagined: War, Border, and Identity in the Chinese Middle Period, ed. Don J. Wyatt. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, 75-110.

— , “Unsung Men of War: Acculturated Embodiments of the Martial Ethos in the Song Dynasty.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 192-218.

— , “Conspirators in Violence: Disorder, The Imperial State, and Its Armies in Medieval China.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 2: AD 500 – AD 1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 38-57.

Xie Bingying, Lily Chia Brissman & Barry Brissman trs. A Woman Soldier’s Own Story: The Autobiography of Xie Bingying. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Yang, Guobin. The Red Guard Generation and Political Activism in China. New York: Columbia University Press, 2016, especially chapter 1 “Violence in Chongqing.”

Yang Shao-yun, “Letting the Troops Loose: Pillage, Massacres, and Enslavement in Early Tang Warfare,” Journal of Chinese Military History 6, no. 1 (2017): 1-52.

Yang, Su. Collective Killings in Rural China during the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Yap, Joseph P. Wars with the Xiongnu: A Translation from Zizhi tongjian. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2009.

— tr. The Western Regions Xiongnu and Han: A Collection of Chapters from the Shiji, Hanshu and Hou Hanshu. 2019.

Yates, Robin, “New Light on Ancient Chinese Military Texts,” T’oung Pao 74.3-5 (1988): 212-248.

— , “Early China.” In War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe, and Mesoamerica, eds. Kurt Raaflaub and Nathan Rosenstein. Cambridge, MA: Center for Hellenic Studies, 1999, 7-46. 

— . “The Horse in Early Chinese Military History.” In Military Organization and War: Papers from the Third International Conference on Sinology, ed. Ko-Wu Huang. Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, 2002, 3-78.

— , “Making War and Making Peace in the Ancient World.” In War and Peace in the Ancient World, ed. Kurt Raaflaub. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, 34-53.

— . “Early Modes on Interpretation of the Military Canons: The Case of the Sunzi bingfa.” In Interpretation and Intellectual Change: Chinese Hermeneutics in Historical Perspective, ed. Ching-I Tu. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2005, 65-80.

— , “Law and the Military in Early China.” In Military Culture in Imperial China, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009, 23-44.

Yu Kam-por, “Confucian Views on War as seen in the Gongyang Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals.” Dao 9 (2010): 97-111.

Yu Maochun, “The Taiping Rebellion: A Military Assessment of Revolution and Counterrevolution.” In A Military History of China, eds. David Graff and Robin Higham. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2002, 135-152.

Yuen, Derek M.C. Deciphering Sun Tzu: How to Read the ‘Art of War.’ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Zhang Daye, Xiaofei Tian, tr. The World of a Tiny Insect: A Memoir of the Taiping Rebellion and Its Aftermath. Seattle: University of Washington, 2013.

Zhou Xun, “Violence in Revolutionary China, 1949-1963.” In the Cambridge World History of Violence, Volume 4: 1800 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 408-426.