August 26, 2020-August 25, 2023
Available for live virtual events
Ji-Hyun Ahn is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Washington Tacoma. She received her M.A. from the Graduate School of Communication & Arts at Yonsei University (South Korea) and Ph.D. from the Department of Radio-Television-Film at the University of Texas at Austin (U.S.A.). She specializes in media globalization, Korean television and popular culture, Asian multiculturalism, and critical mixed-race studies. She is particularly interested in examining how media practices have facilitated the re-imagination of national identity from a global media perspective. Her first book, Mixed-Race Politics and Neoliberal Multiculturalism in South Korean Media (2018), studied how the increase of visual representation of mixed-race Koreans formulates a particular racial project in contemporary South Korean media. She is currently working on a new research project that explores anti-Korean sentiment and the rise of new nationalism in postcolonial East Asia. She won several Top Paper Awards for her work and has published numerous book chapters and articles in peer-reviewed journals including Media, Culture & Society, Cultural Studies, International Communication Gazette, and the Asian Journal of Social Science.
Presentations offered by Professor Ahn:
Watching Race: Mixed-Race Koreans and Multiculturalism in Contemporary South Korean TV
South Korea has long been considered as one of the most racially homogenous countries due to its strong myth of being a “single-ethnic nation.” Yet this well-known myth no longer seems to hold the same weight as in the past because Korea’s foreign population has experienced significant growth due to substantial global migration. Accordingly, the number of children born of unions between a Korean parent and a non-Korean parent is increasing, challenging the idea of monoracial/ethnic Korea. Considering televisual culture as a space where the practice of seeing race takes place and where the meaning of being Korean is contested, this lecture explores televised racial moments that demonstrate particular ways of re-imagining of what it means to be Korean in the contemporary era of globalization. Specifically, the lecture examines visual representations of symbolic biracial Korean figures and discusses how they produce critical conjunctures of race, skin color, blood ties, gender, class, nationality/citizenship, and colonial history to challenge the hegemonic notion of Korea as racially homogenous. The lecture provides an opportunity to discuss the ongoing struggle over racial reconfiguration in Korean popular media.
Anti-Korean Sentiment and (Online) Hate Culture in East Asia
China, Japan, and Taiwan are arguably the most lucrative markets for Korean media and popular culture, but these nations are also home to emerging anti-Korean movements. These anti-Korean movements are diverse in terms of medium (taking place both online and off), participants (spanning the range of youth familiar with digital media culture), and the subject of protest (some movements protest Korean residents, others Korea’s cultural threat, and yet others organize around international disputes with the Korean state). This (new) aversion to South Korea is rooted in the region’s colonial history combined with Korea’s recently changed status on the global cultural map from a peripheral nation to a pseudo-empire. The lecture explores what social conditions support the rise of anti-Korean sentiment across East Asia today. More specifically, the lecture examines how anti-Korean rhetoric and hate speech is created and circulated in online and offline spaces and how it is politicized to channel national antagonism in East Asia. The lecture also discusses individuals’ collaborative efforts to combat racism and hate speech in the region.
What does the “K” Stand for in K-pop?: Deconstructing Koreanness in K-pop
With no doubt, K-pop refers to Korean popular music. But what does the “K” mean in K-pop? With increasing numbers of non-Korean members in K-pop groups, K-pop as a music genre, cultural product and system has become increasingly more transnational and hybrid than ever before. Indeed, recruiting multinational trainees and having non-Korean members when creating a K-pop idol group has been a proven strategy for K-pop entertainment agencies to appeal to different regions of the global market. There even have been some intriguing experiments to create a K-pop group with the majority of its members being non-Korean/Asian, although these attempts interestingly (and maybe predictably) faced huge backlash from K-pop fan communities. Engaging with the controversy over the aforementioned cases, this lecture questions what constitutes K-pop and discusses what is specifically Korean about K-pop. The lecture first introduces various ways in which we understand K-pop and then discusses K-pop’s racial imagination by looking at fans’ reaction to and discourse around K-pop groups without Korean members. In doing so, the lecture addresses how the boundary of K-pop is made and re-made.
Ji-Hyun Ahn currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in her term on the NEAC DSB:
2 engagements between August 26, 2022 – August 25, 2023
Juhn Y. Ahn
April 1, 2020-March 31, 2023
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events
Juhn Y. Ahn is Associate Professor of Buddhist and Korean Studies at the University of Michigan and the author of Buddhas and Ancestors: Religion and Wealth in Fourteenth-Century Korea (University of Washington Press, 2018). His publications also include Transgression in Korea: Beyond Resistance and Control (University of Michigan Press, 2018) and Gongan Collections I, Collected Works of Korean Buddhism, Vol. 7-1 (Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism, 2012). His research on Korean history, Buddhism, and medicine appeared in the Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, Journal of Chinese Religions, Seoul Journal of Korean Studies, and The Oxford Handbook of Meditation. His current research focuses on the economic history of Korea during the Koryŏ period (918-1392), reading practices in Song-dynasty (960-1279) Chan Buddhism, and the cultural history of weather and wealth during the Chosŏn period (1392-1910) in Korea.
Presentations offered by Professor Ahn:
Heavier Than Chains: A Very Brief Economic History of Slavery in Korea
There has been much debate about the nature and history of slavery in premodern Korea. Pointing to the unmistakably large number of people who lived as “slaves” (no and bi) in Korea for the last few hundred years before the colonial period, some claim that Korea was an oppressive slave society. Others argue that the reality of slavery in premodern Korea was far too complex and context sensitive to reach such a simplistic conclusion. Those opposed to the labelling of Korea as a slave society, for instance, point to the fact that some slaves were not always simply treated as chattel but as serfs who could potentially acquire a different social status. They also point to the fact that the rule for determining slave status tended to change over time. Focusing on the role that shifting economic conditions played in the shaping and reshaping of slavery as an institution, this talk will try to show how the wearing of economic chains by slaves could have been a reality that was as equally oppressive as, if not more than, the wearing of social, cultural, or perhaps even literal ones. The talk will also try to show how the chains of shifting economic winds continued to frame and sustain slavery as a institution in Korea.
King Sejong the Great and the Cultural History of Weather, Religion, and Wealth in Early Chosŏn Korea
King Sejong (r. 1418-1450), whose much adored image is prominently displayed on Korea’s green-colored banknote and in the middle of Gwanghwamun Square, is often, if not always, remembered and celebrated for his role in the creation of the Korean alphabet, his passion for science, and his love for the common people. This image of the much beloved king, which developed under unique historical circumstances, obscures more than it reveals. Nationalistic efforts to paint King Sejong as an ideal Confucian monarch germinated during the colonial period and later gained steam after the fall of Korea’s first president Syngman Rhee in 1960. But, needless to say, King Sejong was more than just a caring benevolent Confucian monarch. Like many others who occupied the Chosŏn throne, Sejong was a complex figure who sought creative and politically expedient ways to address concerns that continued to trouble the relatively young Chosŏn dynasty. Extreme weather conditions, sharp population growth, shifting geopolitical winds, radical environmental transformations, and resistance to the state’s encroachment on private enterprise proved to be the greatest sources of concern. As Sejong and his predecessors knew well, these concerns could not be addressed without first addressing the so-called Buddhist problem. This talk will take a close look at the growing concerns about weather, religion, and wealth in Early Chosŏn Korea and shed new light on this oft-neglected aspect of Sejong and his reign.
The Hidden Door, the Unclimbable Stairs, and the Broken Lightbulb: A Cultural History of the City in Korea
The wild success enjoyed by Bong Joon Ho and his recent film Parasite (2019) and also Park Chan Wook and his vengeance trilogy Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance (2002), Old Boy (2003), and Lady Vengeance (2005) can be attributed to a variety of different factors: creative storytelling, persuasive and powerful acting by a skillful cast, and the development of a distinctive mis-en-scène to name a few. But what also makes these films so enjoyable is arguably their ability to provide a way for the audience—a domestic and international audience—to vicariously experience the subtle tensions that quietly disturb the idealized image of the everyday in industrialized, urban Korea. What these tensions reveal is a complex society fraught with fissures created by, among other things, class conflict, police-state violence, racism, sexism, and split loyalties. To explain how this works, this talk will treat these and other related Korean films as palimpsests and show how doors, stairs, and even lightbulbs are hidden, exposed, and redefined to bring the unique experience of Korea as a city-written-over-a-city to life.
Juhn Ahn currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in his term on the NEAC DSB:
3 engagements between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023
August 1, 2020-March 31, 2023
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events
Jinsoo An is Associate Professor at the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures of the University of California, Berkeley. He received his doctoral degree from the Department of Film and Television of UCLA and subsequently taught at Hongik University in Seoul, South Korea before joining the faculty at UC Berkeley in 2012. His research interests encompass Korean film history, East Asian cinema, film genre, authorship, history and memory, film historiography, and film censorship. His articles have appeared in positions: asia critique, Journal of Korean Studies, Journal of Japanese and Korean Cinema, and China Review. His 2018 book, Parameters of Disavowal: Colonial Representation in South Korean Cinema, reassesses South Korea’s cinematic rendition of the colonial past as a particular type of knowledge production integral to the historic-cultural logic of the Cold War system. His current research focuses on South Korean cinema under authoritarianism and practices of film censorship during the 1970s.
Presentations offered by Professor An:
Stupendous Villainy in Recent Korean Popular Films
The continuing success of Korean films has garnered the interest of critics in the persistence of the popular genre form. Their appropriation of blockbuster aesthetics, reworking of narrative motifs and genre conventions, as well as the treatment of diverse subject matters, have all received keen critical attention. This presentation, however, explores a narrower element of Korean film’s popular appeal: the depiction of villainy. It explores the strange depth of antiheroes and psychopaths as a distinct aesthetic achievement and the result of recent popular cinema’s narrational prowess. Concurrently, it illuminates the configuration of the aberrant (e.g., the figure of the sociopath or psychopath) that focalizes a dimension of social life hitherto underexamined in other media representations. To be sure, numerous scholars have explored the topics of violence and evil that characterize the strong appeal of Korean film as “extreme” cinema. My presentation sets itself in dialogue with this preceding body of scholarship while also veering towards the narrational and aesthetic dimensions of such a configuration. The narrative techniques in formulating the archetype of the villain not only underscore the broad range and depth of new trends in popular filmmaking, but also call for new ways in conceptualizing the complex confluence of filmic representation, film spectatorship and the sociocultural forces that shape the appeal of Korean cinema, both domestically and internationally.
South Korean Cinema Under Authoritarianism
The 1970s has long been characterized as the nadir of South Korean cinema. Seized by the grip of an authoritarian regime and facing volatile changes within the broader film and media environment itself (such as the spread of television), South Korean cinema entered an extended period of decline that lasted until the 1980s. However, the 1970s also witnessed the birth of a wide array of unusual popular films, accompanied by similarly unique modes of production, consumption, and aesthetic features. This presentation brings attention to an oft-neglected decade of filmmaking in order to interrogate the complex relationship between authoritarian politics and popular films. In particular, this presentation will explore the proliferation of minor film genres, state sponsorship of the “superior film” (usu yŏnghwa in Korean) and its institutionalization, censorship controversies and their industrial repercussions, the rise of discourse on audio-visual media and its impact on the idea of film art, and the question of excessive violence in film aesthetics. This presentation thereby aims to offer a granular history of the tensions and negotiations that arose between the state apparatus and filmmaking personnel, as both interacted closely to make film popular and politically legitimate in the 1970s.
The Question of “Japan” in South Korean Cinema
This presentation offers an overview of one of the most contentious subjects of South Korean cinema: the legacy of colonialism and the question of Japan. From liberation in 1945 until 1997, South Korea maintained a “closed-door” policy towards Japan and outright banned the import of Japanese cinema. In the meantime, South Korea has consistently produced films that revisit the colonial past to promulgate anti-colonial nationalism on the screen. My presentation explores the controversies surrounding the import of waesaek yŏnghwa [literally, “Japanese-colored films”] of the mid-1960s. Set against the backdrop of the 1965 normalization of relations between Japan and Korea, the debate over waesaek yŏnghwa signals a serious challenge to the encroachment of Japanese cinema and visual imagery onto Korean screens. While tracing the convoluted contours of film exchanges between Japan and Korea during the 1960s, this talk also proceeds to highlight one of the era’s most popular film genres, the so-called “Manchurian action film,” which embodied the mandate to uphold the anti-colonial struggle and helped it gain distinct popular appeal. While South Korea’s Manchurian action films have received critical interest for their unique configuration of themes such as colonial history, nationalism, masculinity, geography and genre aesthetics, this presentation revisits the genre to instead interrogate the political economy of anti-colonial nationalism.
Jinsoo An currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in his term on the NEAC DSB:
1 engagements between April 1, 2022-March 31, 2023
May 31, 2022 – March 31, 2025
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events
Dr. Ruediger FRANK is Professor of East Asian Economy and Society at the University of Vienna, where he is also the Director of the European Centre for North Korean Studies. He was born and raised in socialist East Germany and lived for five years in the Soviet Union in the 1970s, experienced German unification first hand as a 21-year-old in 1989/1990, and then spent one semester as a language student at Kim-Il-Sung University in Pyongyang in 1991/1992. He holds an MA in Korean Studies and International Relations, and a PhD in Economics. On the basis of these skills and experiences, he has written extensively on various topics related to North Korea, including economic history during the 1950s, the connections between ideology and economic reform after the 1990s famine, the transformation of state-socialism, tourism and trade, the political economy of unification, and many more. He has been working in various Korea-related councils of the World Economic Forum since 2011~2021 and was named one of the 50 most influential German economists by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in 2012. He tweets as @RFrankVienna.
Presentations offered by Professor Frank:
Growth or Decline of North Korea’s Economy? A Discussion Based on the Annual SPA Budget Reports
Growth or Decline of North Korea’s Economy? A Discussion Based on the Annual SPA Budget Reports This talk deals with some of the practical problems in North Korea research, in particular the acquisition and interpretation of aggregate quantitative data. Using the example of GDP figures, it will be shown which sources exist, what their strengths and weaknesses are, and how scholars try to deal with them.
Comparing German and Korean Unification: Challenges and Pitfalls
This talk deals broadly with the comparison of the German unification case (1990) and the expected Korean unification. It argues that such a comparison is risky and should be undertaken with utmost caution, in order to avoid misleading results that could lead to ineffective or damaging policy choices. It identifies a large number of specific issues where differences are substantial, including geopolitical, economic, and ideological aspects.
Challenging the Korean Fear of High Costs: German Unification as an Economic Win-Win Situation
This talk focuses on the question of unification costs, which is one of the major concerns especially among South Koreans when it comes to discussing the issue of Korean unification. It challenges the conventional narrative that German unification was extremely costly, and argues that it has in fact resulted in quantitative economic gains for all involved sides.
How Can External Actors Increase the Likelihood of Economic Reforms in North Korea: An Analysis Based on the CRE Model
This talk addresses the question of how to increase the likelihood of a deep and broad economic reform drive in North Korea. Rather than doing so based on an ad-hoc interpretation of isolated events or randomly available data, it will attempt to take a systematic approach. The CRE model helps to break down a very broad question into smaller, more precise tasks. As a result, it will be shown that efforts directed at the elite and the middle class, and aimed at increasing perceived gains from reforms and losses from non-reforms, are the most promising measures. This sheds a new light on various policies applied by the West including economic sanctions and summitry with the top leader, and helps explaining the rationale behind current North Korean policies such as inward-orientation and fight against cultural infiltration.
Rudiger Frank currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in his term on the NEAC DSB:
3 engagements between April 1, 2022-March 31, 2023
3 engagements between April 1, 2023-March 31, 2024
3 engagements between April 1, 2024-March 31, 2025
April 1, 2021-March 31, 2024
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events
Valérie Gelézeau is a Professor at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS, Paris) and the director of the Centre for Studies on China, Korea and Japan (CNRS-EHESS-Université de Paris). A cultural geographer & Korean Studies specialist, working with a method she designates as “fieldwork micro-geography,” she is the author of several books addressing the various modalities of space as a social construct in Korea today. In Ap’at’ŭ konghwaguk (The Republic of Apartments, 2007), and Séoul, ville géante, cites radieuses (Séoul, giant cities, radiant cities, 2003), she interprets the development of apartment complexes as one of the main mediation in the fabric of Korean contemporary urban society. She interrogates the Korean capitality in Seoul, mégapole (Seoul, a megapolis, 2011) and more recently in Sŏrabŏl. Des capitales de la Corée (About Korean capital cities, 2018). With Koen De Ceuster (Leiden University) and Alain Delissen (EHESS), she edited De-bordering Korea: Tangible and intangible legacies of the Sunshine Policy (2013). Since 2018, she is the scientific coordinator of the project CITY-NKOR (City, architecture and urbanism in North Korea), a project funded by the French National Research Agency and partnering with the French School of Oriental Studies (EFEO) and Leiden University, which gave way to her latest book, edited with Benjamin Joinau (Hoingik University): Faire du terrain en Corée du Nord. Ecrire autrement les sciences sociales (Doing fieldwork in North Korea. A different way to write social sciences, 2018).
Presentations Offered by Professor Gelézeau:
Deciphering the Gangnamscape – Apartments and the Vertical City in South Korea
In 2012, PSY’s global hit “Gangnam Style” triggered a crazy world passion for a new and strange choreography on the Seoulite urban scene of prominently featured apartments. The horse dance globalized a “Gangnamscape,” in which high-rise housing disseminated a common image, more or less glamorous, of South Korean cities. This talk tries to elucidate this new expression of the “Republic of apartments” (Apat’ŭ konghwaguk), while analyzing its trajectory. Largely unknown to city-dwellers before the 1960s, large apartment complexes (ap’at’ŭ tanji) are now powerfully shaping the landscapes of contemporary South Korean cities. They are now memorialized by artists (from PSY to well-known photographers), planners, or citizen themselves. Apartments have been the main architectural mediation to the making of the South Korean modern urban society. They are still at the core of the material and immaterial city in South Korea. The lecture will discuss those issues, combining the perspectives of cultural geography and Korean studies and using ethnographic materials gathered on sites studied since the mid-1990s (in downtown Seoul) and new ones in the making (Songdo).
The Korean Meta-Nation and the Archipelago of Korean Capital Cities
How does the Korean case provide a powerful critique to the euro-centric approach of capital cities as a static and central product of rising nation-State? This talk discusses how the partition of the Korean peninsula since the mid-20th century reactivated the plurality of capital cities. Based on the analysis of geographical discourses (in Korean, English, and French), it offers a geo-historical discussion on “capitaless” in Korea and narrates the geo-historical trajectories of capital cities. The competition of political capitals is embodied in architecture and urban development both in Seoul and Pyongyang, while discourses on capitals of great historical Kingdoms were to legitimize divergent historical narrations—with material consequences on heritage policies, constructions, and management. Next to those great capitals of Korean geo-history (hyper-capitals of the present States, Pyongyang and Seoul, or legitimizing historical capital cities such as Kaesong and Kyŏngju), de-capitalized cities such as Suwŏn, forgotten or marginalized capitals, such as Puyo, or Kongju) form an archipelago of capitals. This archipelago of “hyper-capitals” and “shadow capitals,” scattered not only across the peninsula itself, but also connected to many capital cities of the Korean diaspora: from the North American diaspora’s Koreatown in Los Angeles to the Central Asian diaspora’s Almaty in Kazakhstan, draws the network of capitals of a complex and plural Korean meta-nation.
The Korean Meta-Border, Schizo-Koreanology, and the Cycles of Geopolitical Crisis in the Peninsula
How to explain the cyclic nature of the Korean crisis and the irresolution of the Korean question? This lecture discusses the question, starting from the locus of division itself, the border, and the perspective of social and cultural geography. Elaborating on the vast literature produced in South Korea about the pundan chej’e (the division system), as well as on personal research about the Korean border implemented since the mid-2000s, I argue that the partition of the peninsula is much more than a geopolitical fact happened in 1945. In the context of the armistice regime, the spatial border, far to be a static line or zone, is a front still in the making: it is to be considered as a permanent ongoing process that keeps creating more and more socio-spatial borders, new and multiple territorialities, within the two Koreas and far beyond the peninsula. As such, it keeps redefining profoundly the “Korean” identity(ies) and appears as the paragon of a “meta-border” (M. Foucher), a border that expands far beyond the place and time where it was originally inscribed. While those particular features of the border condition scientific perspectives on the study of “Korea” (a schizo-Koreaology), they also put at stake the cyclical nature of the inter-Korean relation, as well as the neither war nor peace geopolitical situation of the peninsula.
Beyond Fieldwork, a Field to Work : Theory, Praxis and Ethics for Researching (in) North Korea
What are the challenges of a scholar trying to do fieldwork in a closed and contained environment as North Korea, restricted internally by the totalitarian context and externally by the international sanctions? Is there merit, and even meaning, in pursuing research despite imposed restrictions on access to the terrain? How does this restricted access impact research findings and how does one account for them? While decades of discussion regarding the politics, praxis, and ethics of fieldwork have been engaged, those topics are rarely regarding studies in and about North Korea, where common and scientific knowledge usually considers impossible the practice of fieldwork. This talk proposes to address the internal contradiction of “doing fieldwork in North Korea,” by challenging a positivist view of what fieldwork is, as something external to be discovered and interpreted. Beyond fieldwork, recognizing a field to work is part of our scientific engagement as Korean studies specialists, who may want to include all dimension, complexities and pluralities of the Korean meta-nation in their research.
Valérie Gelézeau currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities remaining in her term on the NEAC DSB:
1 engagement between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023
1 engagement between April 1, 2023 and March 31, 2024
Ju Hui Judy Han
August 26, 2020-August 25, 2023
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events
Ju Hui Judy Han is Assistant Professor of Gender Studies at UCLA. Her writings about mobility, religious politics, and queer and feminist activism have been published in Journal of Korean Studies, Scholar & Feminist Online, Geoforum, Critical Asian Studies, and positions: asia critique among others, as well as in several edited books including Territories of Poverty: Rethinking North and South (2015) and Ethnographies of U.S. Empire (2018). She has extensive experience with delivering accessible, media-rich presentations to scholarly, activist, and arts audiences. She has a Ph.D. in Geography from UC Berkeley and has previously taught at the University of Toronto.
Presentations offered by Professor Han:
Not Now, Not Yet: the Politics of Postponement and LGBTQ+ Activism in Korea
Whether referred to as “LGBTQ+” in coalitional terms of identity or as “sexual minority” to emphasize relations of power and marginalization, non-normative gender and sexual formations in South Korea have certainly become more visible—and contentious—than ever before. In recent years, LGBTQ activists have confronted intensified anti-LGBTQ backlash such as the organized opposition against the annual Queer Festival (Pride). But they also face deep-seated heterosexism and patriarchy in liberal and mainstream social movements. Contemporary LGBTQ politics in South Korea in fact involve challenges from both conservative and liberal camps. This lecture presents a brief history of LGBTQ activism in South Korea, highlighting moments of political upheaval and grassroots social movements that grapple with these challenges. I discuss how anti-LGBTQ conservatives continue to block equal rights protection and anti-discrimination laws altogether while many liberal politicians maintain a reluctance to fully embrace LGBTQ rights as fundamental human rights. There are important differences. Whereas conservatives portray LGBTQ rights as simply intolerable and permanently impossible, liberals often assert that LGBTQ rights are premature and that it is “not yet” the right time in Korea. What does it mean to be considered untimely or out of place in time? What does such politics of postponement tell us about progress and neoliberal democracy?
Beyond Mass Rallies and Candlelight Protests: Protest Repertoires in Precarious Times
The Candlelight Protests in South Korea in 2016-17 succeeded in achieving what had seemed impossible—ousting the conservative President for corruption and abuse of power and installing a new, more liberal government. In a triumphant view, the Candlelight Protests were credited for drawing from the historical legacies of pro-democracy movements and reinvigorating forms of decentralized collective action, demonstrating in a spectacular way the will of the people and the power of peaceful mass mobilization. This lecture complicates this depiction. Beyond spectacular mass rallies like the Candlelight Protests, I discuss a more diverse and sometimes more radical set of protest repertoires engaged by striking workers, queer/trans activists, religious leaders, and activists who offer remarkable stories of inequality, creative resistance, and resilience. These repertoires include indefinite hunger strikes, public head shaving ceremonies, long-term tent encampments, high-rise occupations of billboards and construction cranes, one-person protests, Buddhist prostration processions, and religious worship services in public spaces. Who performs these protests and to what end? What is accomplished by them and what are the critiques?
The Queer Thresholds of Heresy
Disputes over heresy are not new or uncommon, as mainline Protestant denominations in South Korea have historically deemed numerous minor sects and radical theologies to be heretical to the Christian faith. However, when the largest evangelical denomination in the country, the Presbyterian Church in Korea (Hapdong), began investigating Reverend Lim Borah in 2017 and subsequently ruled her ministry to be heretical, they charted new grounds by denouncing LGBTI-affirming theology and ministry as heresy. Since then, a number of seminary students and clergy have found themselves in trouble with the institutional authorities of their schools and denominations. This talk traces the semantic ambiguity and politics of the term for heresy, idan, and discusses the intersection of heretical Christianity, gender and sexual nonconformity, and ideological dissidence. What becomes clear is that growing interests in queer theology and calls for LGBTI-affirming ministry have in turn provoked beleaguered Protestant denominations to use heresy to discredit and stigmatize dissident practices. Rather than simply stifle dissent, however, heresy controversies also expose the limits of dominant power and reveal the contours of vital resistance.
A Contentious History of Feminisms in Korea
Feminist politics in Korea today is a complex and diverse terrain, consisting of multiple genealogies and sometimes contrasting ideologies. For instance, feminists who began organizing mass protests in 2016 against misogyny and violence—especially after the so-called Gangnam Station murder and spycam scandals—are somewhat different in composition and political character from women workers organizing unions to fight workplace discrimination or queer activists who worked to decriminalize abortion in early 2019. The #MeToo movement that has exposed pervasive sexual violence in schools, churches, the arts, and in government has not always drawn clear connections to the transnational movements for justice for former “comfort women.” In a stark example of divergent feminisms, some feminists fought to protect the admission of a transgender student at a women’s university while others joined an effort to deny asylum to Yemeni refugees in Korea with a rhetoric that they are mostly young cisgender heterosexual men who might commit gender-based crimes against Korean women. The question is not whether one brand of feminism is more true or radical, young or old. Rather, I tease out in this talk the politics of difference and questions of intersectionality at work in these contentious political moments and spaces.
Ju Hui Judy Han currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities remaining in her term on the NEAC DSB:
2 engagements between August 26, 2022 and August 25, 2023
Eleana J. Kim
April 1, 2021-March 31, 2024
Available for recorded or live virtual events, or webinars
Eleana J. Kim is a sociocultural anthropologist whose research interests include kinship and relatedness, transpacific and (trans)national circulations, more-than-human ecologies, and categories of nature and culture as they are made and unmade through social practice. She is the author of Adopted Territory: Transnational Korean Adoptees and the Politics of Belonging (Duke University Press, 2010), which was awarded the James B. Palais Prize in Korean Studies from the Association for Asian Studies, and the Social Science Book Award from the Association for Asian American Studies, both in 2012. Her second book, De/Militarized Ecologies: Making Peace with Nature Along the Korean DMZ, is forthcoming from Duke University Press. Her essays have appeared in journals including Cultural Anthropology, Journal of Korean Studies, Anthropological Quarterly, Social Text, Adoption & Culture, and edited volumes including The Cambridge Handbook for the Anthropology of Kinship and Ethnographies of U.S. Empire. Her research has been supported by the Korea Foundation, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, the Social Science Research Council, and the American Council of Learned Societies. She received her B.A. in English Literature from Brown University and her Ph.D. in Anthropology from New York University. She is an associate professor in the Anthropology Department and affiliated faculty of the Asian American Studies Department at University of California, Irvine and is president-elect of the Society for Cultural Anthropology.
Photo credit: Nicola Kountoupes
Presentations Offered by Professor Kim:
Adoptions from South Korea: How an Emergency Situation Became a Permanent Solution
South Korea holds the dubious distinction of having sent more children for adoption to foreign nations than any other country in the world. The international adoption of children first began in the aftermath of WWII, when orphans from war-ravaged Germany, Japan, Greece, and other nations relied upon the charity of extended kin or strangers to care for abandoned children. South Korean adoptions began under the same premise, namely, that an emergency situation of war orphans and mixed-race children, appearing in the context of foreign military occupation, required a drastic solution. Once the nation had stabilized in the postwar period, however, rather than ending these child migrations, the South Korean state institutionalized adoption as part of its welfare system. By the 1970s, it provided a model for other developing nations which were also struggling with overpopulation and a lack of social welfare programs. From an emergency measure for war orphans, adoption had become a solution for dealing with excess population—namely, children born to unwed mothers or poor families. Justified by an ideology of the “best interests of the child,” adoptions were also a ready source of foreign currency and an expedient mode of building goodwill with powerful, western nations. This talk provides a critical analysis Korean adoption history in order to illuminate the relationship between transnational adoption of children and the past seventy years of South Korean modernity, paying close attention to the contexts of Cold War geopolitics, global capitalism, and heteronormative, gendered family values. The more than 200,000 adopted Koreans around the world now constitute a sizable part of the Korean diaspora, and this talk concludes with a discussion of how adult adopted Koreans have not only problematized but also radically shifted hegemonic discourses that have long framed adoption as inherently good.
Cold War’s Nature: The Korean Demilitarized Zone and Mid-Century American Science
Since the early 2000s, international media coverage of the Korean peninsula has frequently included stories about the rare and endangered species that live in the DMZ, a buffer area borne out of the Korean War. This “accidental” natural sanctuary is framed in mythical terms––an ecological paradise blossoming out of unending war and symbolizing nature’s resilience. Drawing on the Smithsonian Institution archives and South Korean sources, this talk offers a critical, transpacific history of the DMZ’s ecology, tracing its origins to the mid-1960s, when a network of U.S. conservationists and Smithsonian ecologists first identified and constructed it as an “outdoor laboratory” within the emerging paradigm of “ecosystem science.” The DMZ’s ecology is an example of what I call “Cold War’s nature,” entangled within and reproductive of American scientific and political exceptionalism during a period of rising environmental awareness and expanding U.S. military empire. The DMZ area has since proven to be less of a “baseline” than a fragile refuge where ongoing militarization and incursions of capital are threatening actually existing life forms. I conclude by drawing upon ethnographic research on human-nonhuman assemblages in the DMZ area to ask what theoretical and political possibilities might be offered by extending the study of “Cold War afterlives” to include multispecies worlds.
In the Meantime of Division: Multispecies Encounters in the Korean DMZ
This talk discusses the ecological transformations, cultural discourses, and transnational connections that, since the end of the Cold War, have contributed to the symbolic transformation of the DMZ from a scar of fratricidal war to a green belt representing biodiversity and peace. South Korean state discourses in particular began to celebrate the DMZ as the “land of peace and life” in order to promote the DMZ region, which includes rural areas immediately south of the DMZ, as sites of natural renaissance and tourism development. I discuss how the unending Korean War and the waxing and waning of interKorean détente have conditioned a temporality in South Korea that I call “the meantime of division.” In the hybrid civilian-military border areas close to the DMZ, national security and capitalism exist in tension, particularly for local people who have for decades been left out of the nation’s rapid economic development. With the transformation of the DMZ from a forbidden zone into a new frontier of possibilities, largely related to its ecological renaissance, border areas have become sites for new contestations and encounters among various parties, including farmers, local environmentalists, urban activists and intellectuals, and more-than-human entities. I examine how the DMZ’s “nature” is produced as valuable—ecologically and economically—and how it is becoming newly political in South Korea, drawing upon examples from my fieldwork, including migratory birds, land mines, and small irrigation ponds. In conclusion, I ask how a focus on these multispecies worlds may defamiliarize conventional discourses of national division, future unification, and peace.
Eleana Kim currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities remaining in her term on the NEAC DSB:
3 engagements between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023
3 engagements between April 1, 2023 and March 31, 2024
April 31, 2022 – March 31, 2025
Available for both In-Person and live virtual events and classroom visits
Christina Klein is a cultural historian and film scholar whose research interests include US-Korean encounters, the Korean Wave, the cultural Cold War in Asia, gender, and historical memory. Her most recent book, Cold War Cosmopolitanism: Period Style in 1950s Korea Cinema (University of California, 2020) explores the cinematic representation of women in the tumultuous postwar period. She has published articles on the CIA-funded Asia Foundation, the globalization of film industries, why American studies scholars should pay attention to Korean cinema, and the martial arts film. Her first book, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961 (University of California, 2003) examines how American cultural producers cultivated a sense of political obligation to non-communist Asia by deploying a sentimental discourse of connection. She earned a BA in Film Studies from Wesleyan and a PhD in American Studies from Yale. She is a professor of English and member of the Asian Studies faculty at Boston College.
Presentations offered by Professor Klein:
“The Feminine 1950s: Social Change and Popular Culture in the Postwar Period”
The 1950s has been something of a “lost decade” within South Korean historiography, wedged as it is between the two longer periods of colonialism and developmental militarism. Recent scholarship, however, has revealed the postwar period to have been a time of rapid and contentious social change, during which women played an important role. The Korean War and the waging of the cultural Cold War spurred the movement of women out of the home and into public life, where they took on new roles as college students, breadwinners, entertainers, and feminists. This talk explores how these changes caused women to become the focal point for highly-charged debates about modernization and Westernization. It focuses on how popular culture, especially film, served as an arena in which these debates took place and it charts the rise of the woman-centered melodrama as the era’s most popular, and representative, genre. This talk will help students understand how the study of popular culture can illuminate aspects of women’s history that can be difficult to access through traditional archival sources.
Remembering the Korean War: Film and Historical Memory
The Korean War was a deeply traumatic event that shaped the lives and psyches of tens of millions of people across multiple generations. Over the past seventy years it has been memorialized through statues, museums, and numerous other forms of cultural expression. This talk explores the concept of “historical memories”: acts of public remembering that link the past to the present and invite use to interrogate the nature of the relationship between them. It investigates how the Korean War has been remembered on film, comparing how movies produced decades apart have depicted specific aspects of the war while also conveying the concerns and perspectives of their own historical moments. The films under discussion include The Marines Who Never Returned (1961), which was produced during the peak of the Cold War; Welcome to Dongmakgol (2005), which was made during the Sunshine Policy period; and Swing Kids (2018), which is a product of the cosmopolitan hallyu era. How does each film identify South Korea’s enemies? How does it define the country’s allies? How does it characterize the issues at stake in the war? By asking and answering these questions, we can see how understandings of the war’s significance have changed dramatically over time and have been shaped by the concerns of the present as much as by events of the past.
Parasite, Squid Game, BTS: The Globalization of Korean Popular Culture
In the years between 2019 and 2021, Korean popular culture achieved an unparalleled degree of global visibility, critical attention, and popular success. Parasite took top awards at Cannes and the Academy Awards, Squid Game occupied the number one slot on Netflix, and BTS sold out stadium shows and broke records worldwide. How did this happen? This talk charts the history of the Korean Wave (hallyu) from its origins in the late 1990s to the present. It discusses the role of government support, export-oriented production, the globalization of media companies, the impact of social media, the creation of new forms of fandom, the influence of the American market in conferring status, and the development of culturally hybrid styles.
Christina Klein currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in her term on the NEAC DSB:
3 engagements between April 31, 2022 and March 31, 2023
3 engagements between April 1, 2023 and March 31 2024
3 engagements between April 1, 2024 and March 31 2025
April 1, 2020-March 31, 2023
Available for live virtual events
Dafna Zur is an Associate Professor in the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Stanford University. She teaches courses on Korean literature, cinema, and popular culture. Her book, Figuring Korean Futures: Children’s Literature in Modern Korea (Stanford University Press, 2017), traces the affective investments and coded aspirations made possible by children’s literature in colonial and postcolonial Korea. She is working on a new project on moral education in science and literary youth magazines in postwar North and South Korea. She has published articles on North Korean science fiction, the Korean War in North and South Korean children’s literature, childhood in cinema, and Korean popular culture. Her translations of Korean fiction have appeared in wordwithoutborders.org, The Columbia Anthology of Modern Korean Short Stories, and the Asia Literary Review.
Presentations offered by Professor Zur:
The Story of Data: Science and Fiction in North and South Korea
Postwar Korean was shaped to a large extent by cold war ideologies. On both sides of the 38th parallel, ideological positions were determined, asserted and disseminated to the general public through a diverse range of media. And of these, children’s periodicals were perceived as particularly effective in molding the inner worlds of future generations and aligning them with the hegemonic anti-imperialist discourses of the postwar era. Perhaps less obvious is the role that science played in the formation of ideological identities in postwar North and South Korea. Much in the spirit the technical and scientific magazines circulating on both sides of the Iron Curtain, North and South Korean writers celebrated the advancement of science and technology and accorded to these developments great optimism. Even while the Korean people were struggling to recover from the devastation of the Korean War, both North and South Koreans delighted in the promise of atomic energy and long-range missiles to deliver limitless sources of energy for development for the ultimate purpose: forging a social and scientific utopia.
Scientific knowledge figured into children’s magazines as more than just numbers, formulas, and hard data. Writers of poetry and fiction grappled with the question of how to convey the lessons taught by science in their creative works. Their response was to insist on a mode of thought and language derived from science, namely: the execution of scientific (i.e. objective and rational) observation, and the insistence that fiction describe only scientifically proven phenomena. Poets demanded that children’s songs (tongyo) derive their inspiration from nature as the most appropriate channel for the poetic spirit (sisim). My talk explores the negotiation of science and fiction in postwar North Korea to illuminate not only political and ideological agendas, but to demonstrate that the nuts and bolts of science relied on modes of storytelling that necessitated, at the same time, the effacement of these modes in a process of what I call “the story of data.”
Anne Frank in North Korea and the Politics of Self-Writing
After the division of the Korean peninsula in 1945, foreign children’s literature was central to the development of North Korea’s burgeoning literary field. Translations of Soviet, Chinese, and other Communist Bloc fiction were featured regularly in the periodical Children’s Literature (Adong Munhak) in the first two decades after the Korean War. By the 1980s, however, translations all but disappeared from the pages of the children’s magazine with very few exceptions, among them The Diary of Anne Frank. The North Korean translation of Anne’s diary was published in fourteen installments by Children’s Literature between July 2002 and February 2004; it was also published in book form by educational publisher Kyoyuk tosŏ ch’ulp’ansa in 2002. Coming on the heels of North Korea’s disastrous famine, the decision to translate Anne Frank’s diary was likely driven by the need for the state, which was in the throes of extreme isolation and humanitarian crisis, to provide its young readers with models of resilience and perseverance, while ascribing food shortages and political isolation to abstract fascist forces (and attributing the less appealing aspects of the diary to the “inevitable shortcomings of a teenage capitalist”). But while the translator’s choices betray his ideological proclivities, the translation is surprising in two ways. First, it demonstrates that the North Korean literary establishment, even at its points of greatest isolation, was part of a global circulation of texts. Second, a close examination of the diary reveals places where, despite the translator’s best efforts, the text exposes itself to the possibility of multiple readings that run contrary to state ideology. Ultimately, I interrogate the extent to which the diary form—which is commonly used in North Korea and is obliquely related to practices of self-writing as self-surveillance—can reveal the individual’s most truthful, political, self. I question the extent to which various forms of self-writing signal their truth-stakes, and bring into focus the broader structural and institutional frames that both make and limit the extent of these truths.
Music and Children’s Poetry in Early Modern Korea
The appearance of the magazine Ǒrini in 1923 marked the beginning of new era of literary publications in Korea, one designed specifically for an audience of young readers. Ǒrini reflects the convictions of its editors, contributors, and children’s rights activists about the connection between literature and children’s emotional development. Children’s emotions were seen as a central target of reform in this period, and literature, particularly children’s poetry (called tongyo and tongsi), was considered a powerful conduit of this reform. In this talk, I draw links between the discourse around kamjŏng kyoyuk (emotional education) that circulated in print media of the time and the poetry and music that was supposed to facilitate this so-called emotional reform. The discourse around the modernizing force of emotional education through poetry and music brings to light the transnational aspects of the interest in children’s emotions in this period. At the same time, I explore the competing stakes in emotional reform on the Korean peninsula, particularly coming from the Ch’ŏndogyo, Buddhist, and Christian institutions, to uncover the moral underpinnings of children’s literature in the early twentieth century.
Dafna Zur currently has the following number of speaking engagement opportunities available in her term on the NEAC DSB:
3 engagements between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023